Fascist Italy faced a conflict with Nazi Germany regarding the fate of Jews, especially those of the Italian communities in southeastern France and in Tunisia. Carpi (history, Tel Aviv Univ.) has plumbed archival sources in Rome and Paris to detail this complicated but fascinating aspect of the Holocaust. He shows that most Italian diplomats and military personnel were strongly opposed to the policies of Nazi Germany toward the Jews, an enlightened attitude that resulted from a complicated mixture of economic, political, and cultural factors and especially the absence in Italy of the strong anti-Semitism found in Germany. This important study should be in academic libraries and in public libraries with strong Holocaust collections.