In this lively set of essays distinguished historian Stuart Schwartz draws on his own extensive research and a robust historiography to explore the sociocultural perceptions of, and Spanish and Portuguese relations with, groups that lacked a stable place within the Christian society of the early modern Iberian-American world: converts from Judaism and Islam and their descendants (conversos, moriscos, New Christians) and people who were the products of racial mixing in the Americas. This thought-provoking treatment of the problem of exclusion—and its counterpart, inclusion—and remains as important, and perhaps intractable, in our world as it was in the one that Schwartz addresses.